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“The Star-Spangled Banner” is the national anthem of the United States of America.
The lyrics come from “Defence of Fort McHenry”, a poem written in 1814 by the 35-year-old amateur poet Francis Scott Key after witnessing the bombardment of Fort McHenry by the British Royal Navy ships in Chesapeake Bay during the Battle of Fort McHenry in the War of 1812.

the original poem

the original poem

The poem was set to the tune of a popular British drinking song, written by John Stafford Smith for the Anacreontic Society, a men’s social club in London. “The Anacreontic Song” (or “To Anacreon in Heaven”), with various lyrics, was already popular in the United States. Set to Key’s poem and renamed “The Star-Spangled Banner”, it would soon become a well-known American patriotic song.

With a range of one and a half octaves, it is known for being difficult to sing. Although the song has four stanzas, only the first is commonly sung today, with the fourth (“O thus be it ever when free men shall stand…”) added on more formal occasions.
In the fourth stanza, Key urged the adoption of “In God is our Trust” as the national motto (“And this be our motto: In God is our Trust”).  The United States adopted the motto “In God We Trust” by law in 1956.

“The Star-Spangled Banner” was recognized for official use by the Navy in 1889 and the President in 1916, and was made the national anthem by a congressional resolution on March 3, 1931 (46 Stat. 1508, codified at 36 U.S.C. § 301), which was signed by President Herbert Hoover.

Before 1931, other songs served as the hymns of American officialdom. “Hail, Columbia” served this purpose at official functions for most of the 19th century. “My Country, ‘Tis of Thee”, whose melody was derived from the British national anthem, also served as a de facto anthem before the adoption of “The Star-Spangled Banner.” Following the War of 1812 and subsequent American wars, other songs would emerge to compete for popularity at public events, among them “The Star-Spangled Banner.”

Early history of the lyrics
An artist’s rendering of the battle at Fort McHenry. The 15-star, 15-stripe “Star Spangled Banner Flag” which inspired the poem. John Stafford Smith – memorial in Gloucester Cathedral, England

On September 3, 1814, Francis Scott Key and John Stuart Skinner, set sail from Baltimore aboard the ship HMS Minden flying a flag of truce on a mission approved by President James Madison. Their objective was to secure the exchange of prisoners, one of which was Dr. William Beanes, the elderly and popular town physician of Upper Marlboro, and a friend of Key’s who had been captured in his home.
Beanes was accused of aiding the arrest of British soldiers. Key and Skinner boarded the British flagship HMS Tonnant on September 7 and spoke with Major General Robert Ross and then-Vice Admiral Alexander Cochrane over dinner, while they discussed war plans. At first, Ross and
Cochrane refused to release Beanes, but relented after Key and Skinner showed them letters written by wounded British prisoners praising Beanes and other Americans for their kind treatment.

The 15-star, 15-stripe "Star Spangled Banner Flag"

The 15-star, 15-stripe "Star Spangled Banner Flag" which inspired the poem.

Because Key and Skinner had heard details of the plans for the attack on Baltimore, they were held captive until after the battle, first aboard HMS Surprise, and later back on the HMS Minden. After the bombardment, certain British gunboats attempted to slip past the fort and effect a landing in a cove to the west of it, but they were turned away by fire from nearby Fort Covington, the city’s last line of defense.

During the rainy night, Key had witnessed the bombardment and observed that the fort’s smaller “storm flag” continued to fly, but once the shell and Congreve rocket barrage had stopped, he would not know how the battle had turned out until dawn. By then, the storm flag had been lowered, and the larger flag had been raised.

Key was inspired by the American victory and the sight of the large American flag flying  triumphantly above the fort. This flag, with fifteen stars and fifteen stripes, came to be known as the Star Spangled Banner Flag and is today on display in the National Museum of American History, a treasure of the Smithsonian Institution. It was restored in 1914 by Amelia Fowler, and again in 1998 as part of an ongoing conservation program.

Aboard the ship the next day, Key wrote a poem on the back of a letter he had kept in his pocket. At twilight on 16 September, he and Skinner were released in Baltimore. He completed the poem at the Indian Queen Hotel, where he was staying, and he entitled it “Defence of Fort McHenry”.

Interestingly, much of the idea of the poem and even some of the wording is arguably derived from an earlier song by Key, also set to the tune of The Anacreontic Song. The song, known as “When the Warrior Returns”, is said to have been written in honor of Stephen Decatur and Charles Stewart on their return from the First Barbary War.

According to the historian Robin Blackburn, the words “the hireling and slave” allude to the fact that the British attackers had many ex-slaves in their ranks, who had been promised liberty and demanded to be placed in the battle line “where they might expect to meet their former
masters”.

Key gave the poem to his brother-in-law, Judge Joseph H. Nicholson. Nicholson saw that the words fit the popular melody “The Anacreontic Song”, of English composer John Stafford Smith, which was the official song of the Anacreontic Society, an 18th-century gentlemen’s club of amateur musicians in London. Nicholson took the poem to a printer in Baltimore, who anonymously printed broadside copies of it – the song’s first known printing – on September 17; of these, two known copies survive. Francis Scott Key’s original manuscript copy of his “Star-Spangled Banner” poem. It is now on display at the Maryland Historical Society.

On September 20, both the Baltimore Patriot and The American printed the song, with the note “Tune: Anacreon in Heaven”. The song quickly became popular, with seventeen newspapers from Georgia to New Hampshire printing it. Soon after, Thomas Carr of the Carr Music Store in Baltimore published the words and music together under the title “The Star-Spangled Banner”, although it was originally  called “Defence of Fort McHenry”. The song’s popularity increased, and its first public performance took place in October, when Baltimore actor Ferdinand Durang sang it at Captain McCauley’s tavern.

Commemorative plaque in Washington, D.C. marking the site at 601 Pennsylvania Avenue where “The Star-Spangled Banner” was first publicly sung

The song gained popularity throughout the nineteenth century and bands played it during public events, such as July 4 celebrations.

On July 27, 1889, Secretary of the Navy Benjamin F. Tracy signed General Order #374, making “The Star-Spangled Banner” the official tune to be played at the raising of the flag.

In 1916, President Woodrow Wilson ordered that “The Star-Spangled Banner” be played at military and other appropriate occasions.
Although the playing of the song two years later during the seventh-inning stretch of the 1918 World Series is often noted as the first instance that the anthem was played at a baseball game, evidence shows that the “Star-Spangled Banner” was performed as early as 1897 at opening day ceremonies in Philadelphia and then more regularly at the Polo Grounds in New York City beginning in 1898. However, the tradition of performing the national anthem before every baseball game began in World War II. Today, the anthem is performed before the beginning of all MLS, NBA, NFL, MLB and NHL games (with at least one American team playing), as well as in a pre-race ceremony portion of every NASCAR race.

On November 3, 1929, Robert Ripley drew a panel in his syndicated cartoon, Ripley’s Believe it or Not!, saying “Believe It or Not, America has no national anthem”. In 1931, John Philip Sousa published his opinion in favor, stating that “it is the spirit of the music that inspires” as much as it is Key’s “soul-stirring” words. By a law signed on March 3, 1931 by President Herbert Hoover, “The Star-Spangled Banner” was adopted as the official national anthem of the United States.

Modern history

The first “pop” performance of the anthem heard by mainstream America was by Puerto Rican singer and guitarist Jose Feliciano.
He shocked some people in the crowd at Tiger Stadium in Detroit and some Americans when he strummed a slow, bluesy rendition of the national anthem before game five of the 1968 World Series between Detroit and St. Louis. This rendition started contemporary “Star-Spangled Banner” controversies. The response from many in Vietnam-era America was generally negative, given that 1968 was a tumultuous year for the United States. Despite the controversy, Feliciano’s performance opened the door for the countless interpretations of the “Star-Spangled Banner” heard today.  One week after Feliciano’s performance, the anthem was in the news again when American athletes Tommie Smith and John Carlos lifted controversial raised-fists at the 1968 Olympics while the “Star-Spangled Banner” played at a medal ceremony.

Marvin Gaye gave a soul-influenced performance at the 1983 NBA All-Star Game and Whitney Houston gave a soulful rendition before Super Bowl XXV in 1991, which was released as a single that charted at number 20 in 1991 and number 6 in 2001 (the only times the anthem has been on the Billboard Hot 100). Another famous instrumental interpretation is Jimi Hendrix’s version which was a set-list staple from autumn 1968 until his death in September 1970. Incorporating sonic effects to emphasize the “rockets’ red glare”, and “bombs bursting in air”, it became a late-1960s emblem. Roseanne Barr gave a controversial performance of the anthem at a baseball
game on July 25, 1990. The comedienne belted out a screechy rendition of the song, and afterward she attempted a gesture of ball players by spitting and grabbing her crotch as if adjusting a protective cup. The song and the closing routine offended many in the audience and, later, across the country after it was played on television.

In March 2005, a government-sponsored program, the National Anthem Project, was launched after a Harris Interactive poll showed many adults knew neither the lyrics nor the history of the anthem.

See How USA you are by Downloading the MP3 :

Download The Star-Spangled Banner

Lyrics
Cover of sheet music for “The Star-Spangled Banner”, transcribed for piano by Ch. Voss, Philadelphia: G. Andre & Co., 1862

Oh say can you see by the dawn’s early light
What so proudly we hailed at the twilight’s last gleaming?
Whose broad stripes and bright stars through the perilous fight,
O’er the ramparts we watched were so gallantly streaming?
And the rockets’ red glare, the bombs bursting in air,
Gave proof through the night that our flag was still there.
O! say does that star-spangled banner yet wave
O’er the land of the free and the home of the brave?

On the shore, dimly seen through the glass of the deep,
Where the foe’s haughty host in dread silence reposes,
What is that which the breeze, o’er the towering steep,
As it fitfully blows, half conceals, half discloses?
Now it catches the gleam of the morning’s first beam,
In full glory reflected now shines in the stream:
‘Tis the star-spangled banner! Oh long may it wave
O’er the land of the free and the home of the brave.

And where is that band who so vauntingly swore
That the havoc of war and the battle’s confusion,
A home and a country should leave us no more!
Their blood has washed out their foul footsteps’ pollution.
No refuge could save the hireling and slave
From the terror of flight, or the gloom of the grave:
And the star-spangled banner in triumph doth wave
O’er the land of the free and the home of the brave.

O! thus be it ever, when freemen shall stand
Between their loved home and the war’s desolation!
Blest with victory and peace, may the heav’n rescued land
Praise the Power that hath made and preserved us a nation.
Then conquer we must, when our cause it is just,
And this be our motto: ‘In God is our trust.’
And the star-spangled banner in triumph shall wave
O’er the land of the free and the home of the brave!

Additional Civil War period lyrics

In indignation over the start of the Civil War, Oliver Wendell Holmes added a fifth stanza to the song in
1861 which appeared in songbooks of the era.

When our land is illumined with liberty’s smile,
If a foe from within strikes a blow at her glory,
Down, down with the traitor that tries to defile
The flag of the stars, and the page of her story!
By the millions unchained,
Who their birthright have gained
We will keep her bright blazon forever unstained;
And the star-spangled banner in triumph shall wave,
While the land of the free is the home of the brave.

Alternative lyrics

In a version hand-written by Francis Scott Key in 1840, the third line reads “Whose bright stars and broad stripes,
through the clouds of the fight,”.

reference :

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/USA_National_Anthem

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for Downloading National Anthem of other Country please click here : Mp3 National Anthem

Here are the list of interesting national song of indonesia, as you can see, most of the song still consist of Heroes and nationality of Indonesia’s lyrics.

if you are Indonesian, it will be great if you download it from this link. :

  • Andika Bhayangkari (Amir Pasaribu)
  • Api Kemerdekaan (Joko Lelono/Martono)
  • Bagimu Negri (R. Kusbini)
  • Bangun Pemudi Pemuda (Alfred Simanjuntak)
  • Bendera Kita (Dirman Sasmokoadi)
  • Bendera Merah Putih (Ibu Soed)
  • Berkibarlah Benderaku (Ibu Soed)
  • Bhinneka Tunggal Ika (Binsar Sitompul/A Thalib)
  • Dari Sabang Sampai Merauke (R Soerardjo)
  • Di Timur Matahari (Wage Rudolf Soepratman)
  • Gugur Bunga (Ismail Marzuki)
  • Garuda Pancasila
  • Halo-Halo Bandung (Nama pencipta masih diperdebatkan)
  • Hari Merdeka (Husein Mutahar)
  • Himne Kemerdekaan (Ibu Soed/Wiratmo Sukito]
  • Ibu Kita Kartini (Wage Rudolf Soepratman)
  • Indonesia Bersatulah (Alfred Simanjuntak)
  • Indonesia Jaya (Chaken M)
  • Indonesia Raya (Wage Rudolf Soepratman)
  • Indonesia Subur (M Syafei)
  • Indonesia Pusaka (Ismail Marzuki)
  • Indonesia Tetap Merdeka (Cornel Simanjuntak)
  • Indonesia Tumpah Darahku (Ibu Soed)
  • Kebyar Kebyar (Gombloh)
  • Ku Pinta Lagi (Cornel Simanjuntak)
  • Majulah Negeriku (Susilo Bambang Yudhoyono)
  • Maju Indonesia (Cornel Simanjuntak)
  • Maju Tak Gentar (Cornel Simanjuntak)
  • Mars Bambu Runcing Mars Harapan Bangsa Mars Pancasila (Sudharnoto)
  • Mars Harapan BAngsa
  • Mars Pancasila
  • Melati di Tapal Batas (Ismail Marzuki)
  • Mengheningkan Cipta (Truno Prawit)
  • Merah Putih (Ibu Soed)
  • Nyiur Hijau (Maladi)
  • Pada Pahlawan (Cornel Simanjuntak/Usmar Ismail)
  • Pahlawan Merdeka (Wage Rudolf Soepratman)
  • Pahlawan Tanpa Tanda Jasa (Sartono)
  • Rayuan Pulau Kelapa (Ismail Marzuki)
  • Satu Nusa Satu Bangsa (Liberty Manik)
  • Selamat Datang Pahlawan Muda (Ismail Marzuki)
  • Syukur (Husein Mutahar)
  • Tanah Airku (Ibu Soed)
  • Tanah Airku (Iskak)
  • Tanah Tumpah Darahku (Cornel Simanjuntak/Sanusi Pane)
  • Teguh Kukuh Berlapis Baja (Cornel Simanjuntak/Usmar Ismail)
  • Terima Kasih Kepada Pahlawanku (Husein Mutahar) -

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National anthem is a song that is usually owned by each country to increase citizens’ sense of nationalism.

Many reasons underlie the creation of a national anthem, and it is very  interesting to study.

Sense of patriotism, nationalism, the struggle mostly adorn his verse.

Here are some links of national songs that you can download:

  1. Australian
  2. azerbaijan
  3. bulgaria
  4. canada
  5. checnya
  6. cheko
  7. croatia
  8. Egypt
  9. germany
  10. India
  11. Indonesia raya . (read the article)
  12. italia
  13. jamaica
  14. Kyrgystan
  15. malta
  16. moldovan
  17. Namibia
  18. Nepal
  19. New zealand
  20. polandia
  21. Portugese
  22. rumania
  23. Rusia
  24. singapore
  25. soviet union
  26. Spanish
  27. Sri lanka
  28. taiwan
  29. tibet
  30. turkmenistan
  31. UK
  32. USA (read the Article)
  33. USSR
  34. vietnam
  35. yugoslavia

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Indonesia Raya is the national anthem of the Republic of Indonesia. The song was introduced by its composer, Wage Rudolf Supratman, on 28 October 1928 during the Second Indonesian Youth Congress in Batavia. The song marked the birth of the all-archipelago nationalist movement in Indonesia that supported the idea of one single “Indonesia” as successor to the Dutch East Indies, rather than split into several colonies.

The first stanza of Indonesia Raya was chosen as the national anthem when Indonesia proclaimed its independence at 17 August 1945.

One of the two original publications

One of the two original publications of what is now known as Indonesia Raya in the 10 November 1928 edition of the Sin Po Chinese weekly.

Indonesia Raya is played in flag raising ceremonies. The flag is raised in a solemn and timed motion so that it reaches the top of the flagpole as the anthem ends. The main flag raising ceremony is held annually on 17 August to commemorate Independence day. The ceremony is led by the President of Indonesia.

Indonesian Youth Congress

In 1928, youths from across Indonesia held the first Indonesian Youth Congress, an official meeting to push for the independence of the nation. Upon hearing about the efforts, young reporter Wage Rudolf Supratman contacted the organizers of Congress with the intention of reporting the story, but they requested that he not publish the story from fear of Dutch colonial authorities. The organizers wanted to avoid suspicion so that the Dutch would not ban the event. Supratman promised them this, and the organizers allowed him free access to the event. Supratman, who was also a musician and also a teacher, was inspired by the meetings and intended to write a song for the conference. After receiving encouragement from the conference leader Sugondo Djojopuspito, Supratman played on the violin the song Indonesia with the hope that it would someday become a national anthem. He kept the script to himself because he felt that it was not the appropriate time to announce it.

Supratman first performed Indonesia on the violin on 28 October 1928 during the Second Indonesian Youth Congress.

Distribution

Following the Second Youth Congress, the text of Indonesia was distributed by many political and student organizations. The press also played a key role in the publication of the song. On 7 November 1928, the Soeloeh Ra’jat Indonesia daily published the text to the song. This was followed by the Sin Po Chinese weekly on 10 November In 1929, Wage Rudolf Supratman changed the title of his song to Indonesia Raya and appended the phrase National Anthem of Indonesia below it, but the text of the song did not change. Supratman personally printed and distributed copies of the song with its new title through pamphlets. All one thousand copies of the manuscript were sold within a short amount of time to his friends and family.

A businessman friend of his, Yo Kim Tjan, also expressed interest in recording Indonesia Raya. With Supratman’s consent, Yo created a copy of the song on a gramophone record overseas in order to obtain the best sound quality with the intention of bringing the copy back to Indonesia. However, before Yo was able to do so, Dutch colonial authorities had imposed a ban on the song. Yo was unable to bring the original back but was able to bring home a copy. According to Yo, Supratman had also given him the rights to sell record copies of Indonesia Raya through his store Toko Populair.

Orchestral arrangement

Jozef Cleber a Dutch musician that arrived with a patron of 46 persons of Philharmonic Orchestra under direction of Yvon Baarspul was sent by the Netherlands Government to help the Indonesian Government for music development in Jakarta. Jos Cleber (34 years old), in his town was an experienced arranger for popular songs, and also successfully for Indonesian pop song arrangements, like Di Bawah Sinar Bulan Purnama and Rangkaian Melati, was aksed to arranged the Indonesia Raya anthem by President Soekarno in 1950.

The arrangements starts with a Tutti of strings and trumpets (in Verse A) that represents a brave and an elegant sound, and in the middle of the song (in Verse B) is played smoothly by strings, and finally (in Verse C) comes another Tutti of strings and trumpets with beautiful contrapuntal background of cornos, and together with timpanis and cymbals make it a brave sound for a national anthem that respected by the people.

The original recording was recorded by the Cosmopolitan Orchestra under the direction of Jos Cleber, and it was recorded on Phillips tape in 1951 by the Radio of Jakarta. Then it was digital re-recorded in 1997 in Australia based on Jos Cleber partiturs that stored in Jakarta, and it was played again by the Victorian Philharmonic under direction of Adie MS.

Ownership

In 1951, ownership of the copyright to Indonesia Raya came into question. President Sukarno ordered a search for the rightful heir to Supratman By law, Supratman was the copyright holder of Indonesia Raya as its composer. After Supratman’s death in 1938, ownership of the rights to his works fell upon the designated heirs, his four surviving sisters. However, because Indonesia Raya was officially adopted as the national anthem of Indonesia on 17 August 1945, the work became the property of the state. In addition, the name of “Wage Rudolf Supratman” must be listed as its creator.

As a national anthem, copies of Indonesia Raya cannot be circulated as merchandise to be sold. Consequently, the government had the obligation to obtain all the rights to distribute the song, including the original recording, from Yo Kim Tjan. In 1958, the government obtained the sole right to Indonesia Raya from Supratman’s family. The following year, Yo handed the original record of the song to the Indonesian government. With the recommendation of the Department of Education, the government also rewarded Supratman’s sisters with 250,000 Indonesian rupiah each on 31 May 1960.

this anthem usually be use by Indonesian during flag raising ceremony every Monday.

Download the :

Mp3 of Indonesia raya

Check the original version of this anthem & compare to what it is in the present.

Original lyrics (1928)

INDONESIA RAJA

-Wage Rudolf Supratman-

Indonesia, tanah airkoe,

Tanah toempah darahkoe,

Disanalah akoe berdiri,

Mendjaga Pandoe Iboekoe.

Indonesia kebangsaankoe,

Kebangsaan tanah airkoe,

Marilah kita berseroe:

“Indonesia Bersatoe”.

Hidoeplah tanahkoe,

Hidoeplah neg’rikoe,

Bangsakoe, djiwakoe, semoea,

Bangoenlah rajatnja,

Bangoenlah badannja,

Oentoek Indonesia Raja.

Refrain :

Indones’, Indones’,

Moelia, Moelia,

Tanahkoe, neg’rikoe jang koetjinta.

Indones’, Indones’,

Moelia, Moelia,

Hidoeplah Indonesia Raja.

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for Downloading National Anthem of other Country please click here : Mp3 National Anthem

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